The way they work also means that you need less of them: typically, an enzyme dishwasher detergent is under 2 percent enzymes, against the 7 percent or more of phosphate formulas.
Progress seldom comes without a price, and many people feel that enzyme dishwasher detergents . However, the latest tests by Consumer Reports seem to indicate that this is no longer the case: most of their top-rated dishwasher detergents are enzyme-based types.
breakdown of very few peptide bonds which can be easily removed during the washing process. Presently, use of dual enzymes in detergent formulations is practised, wherein the enzymatic hydrolysis and degradation can be broadened considerably in comparison to a single enzyme approach. Recently, workers of the Genencor International Inc., USA have developed enzymes called endoglycosidases which deglycosylate biopolymers like glycoproteins which are widely distributed in living organisms. They employed rDNA technology to develop Endo-b -N-acetyl glucosaminidase H (Endo H) as a cleaning agent. Endo H has a unique property to remove bacteria (Staphylococci and E. coli) from glass and cloth surfaces in buffer and detergent solutions. At present, most of the advanced countries like Japan, United States and some European countries almost invariably use the detergents incorporated with enzymes. Interestingly, in Japan, all detergent brands contain enzymes. In India, a few premium detergent brands presently available in the market like Ariel (Procter and Gamble (India) Ltd.), Surf Ultra, Rin Biolites, Revel Plus (Hindustan Lever Ltd.) and Zymo (Henkel) contain enzymes in their formulations. Recently, Procter and Gamble (P&G) has introduced a new cellulase enzyme in the detergent powder, Ariel, presently marketed in India, that eliminates the fuzz formed during washing and tumble-drying, particularly of the cotton fabrics. The manufacturers claim that use of this product retains the colour and improves the texture of the fabric on repeated washings. In dishwashing Enzymes have been successfully used in laundry detergents for many years as an aid to remove tough stains. However, the interest in using enzymes in automatic dishwashing detergents (ADDs) has increased recently. Both laundry and dishwashing detergents share similar functions such as removal of stains from egg, milk and starch-based soilings, etc. The performance of the enzymes in the ADDs is strongly influenced by the ADD formulation and the conditions of the automatic dishwashing. At present, proteases and amylases are the only two enzymes which have found major application in dishwashing detergents. In particular, enzyme-based dishwashing detergents are less abrasive in function and thus are suitable for use on delicate chinaware; they prevent the erosion of designs and colours. This application was first exploited in Japan where the use of richly decorated chinaware and wooden kitchen utensils is widespread. Enzymatic ADDs have gained widespread usage since the last decade. In the past 2–3 years, ADDs with enzymes were launched in several European countries, viz. Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark and the United Kingdom. In Japan, all major ADD brands contain enzymes, whereas only one brand in the US market currently contains enzymes. However, at present, there are no enzymatic dishwashing detergents available in India.